El Espíritu Santo no es un ser personal

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El Espíritu Santo no es un ser personal

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El Espíritu Santo no es un ser personal

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“. . . No con ejército, ni con fuerza, sino con mi Espíritu, ha dicho el Eterno de los ejércitos” (Zechariah 4:6 Zechariah 4:6Then he answered and spoke to me, saying, This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, said the LORD of hosts.
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).

En el capítulo anterior vimos que la doctrina de la Trinidad no provino de ninguno de los que escribieron la Biblia, sino que se originó bastante después de que había sido escrito el Nuevo Testamento. ¿Cómo, entonces, debemos definir el Espíritu Santo si no es una persona?

En la Biblia no se nos presenta al Espíritu Santo como un ente o persona diferente. Por el contrario, la forma y contextos en que se menciona nos hacen ver que es el poder que proviene de Dios (Zechariah 4:6 Zechariah 4:6Then he answered and spoke to me, saying, This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, said the LORD of hosts.
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; Micah 3:8 Micah 3:8But truly I am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of judgment, and of might, to declare to Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin.
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). Investigadores judíos que han examinado los pasajes en que es mencionado en el Antiguo Testamento nunca han definido el Espíritu Santo como otra cosa que no sea el poder de Dios.

En el Nuevo Testamento el apóstol Pablo se refirió a él como al espíritu “de poder, de amor y de dominio propio” (2 Timoteo 1:7). Cuando el ángel le hizo saber a María que habría de concebir sobrenaturalmente, le dijo: “El Espíritu Santo vendrá sobre ti, y el poder del Altísimo te cubrirá con su sombra” (Luke 1:35 Luke 1:35And the angel answered and said to her, The Holy Ghost shall come on you, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow you: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of you shall be called the Son of God.
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).

Jesús comenzó su ministerio “en el poder del Espíritu” (Luke 4:14 Luke 4:14And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee: and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.
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). A sus seguidores les dijo: “Pero recibiréis poder, cuando haya venido sobre vosotros el Espíritu Santo . . .” (Acts 1:8 Acts 1:8But you shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come on you: and you shall be witnesses to me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and to the uttermost part of the earth.
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).

En Acts 10:38 Acts 10:38How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him.
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el apóstol Pedro nos dice que “Dios ungió con el Espíritu Santo y con poder a Jesús de Nazaret”. Este era el mismo poder por medio del cual Jesús pudo hacer todos esos grandes milagros durante su ministerio. El Espíritu Santo es la naturaleza, presencia y expresión mismas del poder de Dios obrando activamente en sus siervos (John 14:23 John 14:23Jesus answered and said to him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and make our stayed with him.
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; 2 Pedro 1:4; Galatians 2:20 Galatians 2:20I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ lives in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.
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).

Jesucristo obró por medio del apóstol Pablo “con potencia de señales y prodigios, en el poder del Espíritu de Dios” (Romans 15:19 Romans 15:19Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God; so that from Jerusalem, and round about to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ.
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). Vez tras vez las Escrituras presentan al Espíritu Santo como el poder de Dios.

En su artículo acerca del Espíritu Santo, The Anchor Bible Dictionary (“Diccionario bíblico del ancla”) lo describe como la “manifestación de la presencia y poder divinos, perceptibles especialmente en la inspiración profética” (1992, 3:260).

En la Biblia con frecuencia vemos que Dios inspiraba a sus profetas y a sus siervos por medio del Espíritu Santo. Pedro afirmó que “nunca la profecía fue traída por voluntad humana, sino que los santos hombres de Dios hablaron siendo inspirados por el Espíritu Santo” (2 Pedro 1:21).

Por su parte, Pablo escribió que el plan de Dios había sido “revelado a sus santos apóstoles y profetas por el Espíritu” (Ephesians 3:5 Ephesians 3:5Which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it is now revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;
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), y que lo que él mismo enseñaba era inspirado por el Espíritu Santo (1 Corintios 2:13). Pablo explica, además, que es por medio de su Espíritu que Dios les revela a los verdaderos cristianos las cosas que ha preparado para los que le aman (vv. 9-16). Obrando por medio de su Espíritu, Dios el Padre revela la verdad a quienes le sirven.

Jesús les dijo a sus discípulos que “el Consolador, el Espíritu Santo, a quien el Padre enviará en mi nombre, él os enseñará todas las cosas, y os recordará todo lo que yo os he dicho” (John 14:26 John 14:26But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatever I have said to you.
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). Es por medio del Espíritu de Dios en nosotros que podemos lograr percepción y entendimiento espirituales.
Cristo poseía esta comprensión espiritual en grado sumo. Como el Mesías, fue profetizado que sobre él reposaría el “espíritu de sabiduría y de inteligencia, espíritu de consejo y de poder, espíritu de conocimiento y de temor del Eterno” (Isaiah 11:2 Isaiah 11:2And the spirit of the LORD shall rest on him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD;
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). Como el Hijo del Hombre, Jesucristo ejemplificó en su comportamiento personal las cualidades divinas del omnipotente Dios, viviendo totalmente por las normas bíblicas del Padre, por medio del Espíritu Santo (ver 1 Timoteo 3:16).

Otras cualidades del Espíritu Santo

En las Escrituras se habla del Espíritu Santo de muchas maneras que nos comprueban que no es una persona divina. Por ejemplo, en Acts 10:45 Acts 10:45And they of the circumcision which believed were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Ghost.
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y en 1 Timoteo 4:14 se le menciona como un don. También se nos hace notar que puede ser apagado o extinguido (1 Tesalonicenses 5:19), que puede ser derramado (Acts 2:17 Acts 2:17And it shall come to pass in the last days, said God, I will pour out of my Spirit on all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams:
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, Acts 2:33 Acts 2:33Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he has shed forth this, which you now see and hear.
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), y que somos bautizados en él (Matthew 3:11 Matthew 3:11I indeed baptize you with water to repentance. but he that comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:
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).

La gente puede beber de él (John 7:37-39 John 7:37-39 [37] In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me, and drink. [38] He that believes on me, as the scripture has said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. [39] (But this spoke he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
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), participar de él (Hebrews 6:4 Hebrews 6:4For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,
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) y estar llenos de él (Acts 2:4 Acts 2:4And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
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; Ephesians 5:18 Ephesians 5:18And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit;
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). Somos renovados en el Espíritu Santo (Titus 3:5 Titus 3:5Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;
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) y debemos avivarlo dentro de nosotros (2 Timoteo 1:6). Estas características impersonales ciertamente no son atributos de una persona.

En Ephesians 1:13-14 Ephesians 1:13-14 [13] In whom you also trusted, after that you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that you believed, you were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, [14] Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of his glory.
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se nos dice que es “el Espíritu Santo prometido”, el cual “garantiza nuestra herencia”, y en el versículo 17 se le menciona como “el Espíritu de sabiduría y de revelación” (NVI).

Este Espíritu no es sólo el Espíritu de Dios el Padre, porque en la Biblia también se le llama “el Espíritu de Cristo” (Romans 8:9 Romans 8:9But you are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
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; Philippians 1:19 Philippians 1:19For I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,
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). Ambas formas de llamarlo se refieren al mismo Espíritu, ya que sólo hay un Espíritu (1 Corintios 12:13; Ephesians 4:4 Ephesians 4:4There is one body, and one Spirit, even as you are called in one hope of your calling;
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). Por medio de Jesucristo, el Padre transmite el mismo Espíritu a los verdaderos cristianos (John 14:26 John 14:26But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatever I have said to you.
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; John 15:26 John 15:26But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceeds from the Father, he shall testify of me:
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; Titus 3:5-6 Titus 3:5-6 [5] Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; [6] Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior;
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), guiándolos y capacitándolos para que sean “hijos de Dios” y lleguen a ser “participantes de la naturaleza divina” (Romans 8:14 Romans 8:14For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God.
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; 2 Pedro 1:4).

A diferencia de Dios el Padre y Jesucristo, quienes continuamente se comparan a los hombres en lo que se refiere a su forma y figura, al Espíritu constantemente se le representa de varias maneras o manifestaciones muy distintas, tales como viento (Acts 2:2 Acts 2:2And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
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), fuego (v. 3), agua (John 4:14 John 4:14But whoever drinks of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
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; John 7:37-39 John 7:37-39 [37] In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me, and drink. [38] He that believes on me, as the scripture has said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. [39] (But this spoke he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
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), aceite (Psalms 45:7 Psalms 45:7You love righteousness, and hate wickedness: therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows.
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; comparar con Acts 10:38 Acts 10:38How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him.
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; Matthew 25:1-10 Matthew 25:1-10 [1] Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened to ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. [2] And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. [3] They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: [4] But the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. [5] While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. [6] And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom comes; go you out to meet him. [7] Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. [8] And the foolish said to the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. [9] But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go you rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. [10] And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut.
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), una paloma (Matthew 3:16 Matthew 3:16And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, see, the heavens were opened to him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting on him:
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) y como “arras” o garantía de la vida eterna (2 Corintios 1:22; 2 Corintios 5:5; Ephesians 1:13-14 Ephesians 1:13-14 [13] In whom you also trusted, after that you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that you believed, you were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise, [14] Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, to the praise of his glory.
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). Estas representaciones serían muy difíciles de entender, por no decir otra cosa, si el Espíritu Santo fuera una persona.

En Matthew 1:20 Matthew 1:20But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the LORD appeared to him in a dream, saying, Joseph, you son of David, fear not to take to you Mary your wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.
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encontramos otra prueba de que el Espíritu Santo no es un ente sino el poder de Dios. En este pasaje leemos que Jesús fue engendrado por el Espíritu Santo. Sin embargo, Jesús continuamente oraba a Dios el Padre y hacía referencia a él como a su Padre; en cambio, no se refería así al Espíritu Santo (Matthew 10:32-33 Matthew 10:32-33 [32] Whoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. [33] But whoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven.
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; Matthew 11:25-27 Matthew 11:25-27 [25] At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hid these things from the wise and prudent, and have revealed them to babes. [26] Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in your sight. [27] All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knows the Son, but the Father; neither knows any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.
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; Matthew 12:50 Matthew 12:50For whoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.
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). Jamás hizo referencia al Espíritu Santo como su Padre. Es obvio que el Espíritu Santo fue el medio o poder por el cual el Padre engendró a Jesús como su Hijo.

El ejemplo y la enseñanza de Pablo

Si Dios fuera una Trinidad, el apóstol Pablo, quien escribió muchas de las bases teológicas de la iglesia primitiva, ciertamente habría entendido y enseñado este concepto. Sin embargo, en ninguno de sus escritos encontramos tal enseñanza.

Es más, el saludo inicial que Pablo acostumbraba en las cartas que enviaba tanto a iglesias como a personas era “Gracia y paz sean a vosotros, de Dios nuestro Padre y del Señor Jesucristo”. El Espíritu Santo nunca fue mencionado en ninguno de sus saludos. (Se puede decir lo mismo de Pedro en los saludos de sus dos epístolas.)

El mismo saludo, con sólo pequeñas diferencias, aparece en cada una de las epístolas que llevan el nombre de Pablo (ver Romans 1:7 Romans 1:7To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
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; 1 Corintios 1:3; 2 Corintios 1:2; etc.) Como puede comprobarse, el Espíritu Santo nunca se menciona en todos estos saludos. Este sería un insólito e inadmisible descuido si el Espíritu realmente fuera una persona o ente coigual a Dios el Padre y a Cristo.

Esto resulta más sorprendente aún cuando tenemos en cuenta que en las congregaciones a las que les escribía Pablo, había muchas personas con antecedentes politeístas quienes anteriormente habían adorado a muchos dioses. En sus epístolas no vemos que este apóstol hubiera hecho ningún intento por explicar la Trinidad o que el Espíritu Santo era un ser divino igual que Dios el Padre y Jesucristo.

De todos los escritos de Pablo, sólo en 2 Corintios 13:14 se menciona el Espíritu Santo junto con el Padre y con Cristo, y eso sólo en relación con “la comunión del Espíritu Santo” que todos los creyentes compartían, y no en una declaración teológica acerca de la naturaleza de Dios. Como lo explica Pablo, el Espíritu Santo es el elemento unificador que nos mantiene juntos en un compañerismo justo y piadoso, no sólo entre uno y otro, sino también con el Padre y el Hijo.

No obstante, aquí tampoco se habla del Espíritu Santo como si fuera una persona. Observemos que nuestra comunión o vínculo es del Espíritu Santo, no con el Espíritu Santo. Como se nos dice en 1 John 1:3 John 1:3All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
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, “nuestra comunión verdaderamente es con el Padre, y con su hijo Jesucristo”. Aquí ni siquiera se hace mención del Espíritu Santo.

Pablo nos dice que “sólo hay un Dios, el Padre . . . y un Señor, Jesucristo . . .” (1 Corintios 8:6). No se hace mención del Espíritu Santo como un ser divino.

Otras perspectivas bíblicas

Jesús tampoco habló nunca del Espíritu Santo como si se tratara de un tercer personaje divino. Más bien, en muchos pasajes sólo habló de la relación entre él y Dios el Padre (Matthew 26:39 Matthew 26:39And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as you will.
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; Mark 13:32 Mark 13:32But of that day and that hour knows no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.
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; Mark 15:34 Mark 15:34And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? which is, being interpreted, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
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; John 5:18 John 5:18Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was his Father, making himself equal with God.
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, John 5:22 John 5:22For the Father judges no man, but has committed all judgment to the Son:
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; etc.). El concepto del Espíritu Santo como una persona brilla por su ausencia de las enseñanzas de Jesús. Con respecto a las muchas veces que Jesucristo habló de la relación entre él y el Padre, resulta bastante interesante el hecho de que nunca mencionó tener ninguna relación semejante con el Espíritu Santo.

Otra cosa que debemos tener en cuenta es que en las visiones del trono de Dios registradas en la Biblia, en las que aparecen el Padre y Cristo, el Espíritu Santo nunca es visto (Acts 7:55-56 Acts 7:55-56 [55] But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, [56] And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God.
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; Daniel 7:9-14 Daniel 7:9-14 [9] I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of his head like the pure wool: his throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. [10] A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him: thousand thousands ministered to him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were opened. [11] I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke: I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. [12] As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. [13] I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. [14] And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
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; Apocalipsis 4-5; Revelation 7:10 Revelation 7:10And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sits on the throne, and to the Lamb.
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). A Jesús se le menciona muchas veces estando a la diestra del Padre, pero no se menciona a nadie que esté a su siniestra. En ninguna parte de las Sagradas Escrituras aparecen juntas tres personas divinas.

Incluso en el último libro de la Biblia (y último en ser escrito), no se menciona al Espíritu Santo como una persona divina. En este libro se habla de “un cielo nuevo y una tierra nueva” (Revelation 21:1 Revelation 21:1And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea.
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), donde estará “el tabernáculo de Dios con los hombres, y él morará con ellos” (Revelation 21:3 Revelation 21:3And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying, Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself shall be with them, and be their God.
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). También Cristo, el Cordero de Dios, estará allí (Revelation 21:22 Revelation 21:22And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it.
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). Tampoco aquí aparece el Espíritu Santo; otro error inconcebible si el Espíritu fuera la tercera persona de un Dios trino.

Por las pruebas que pueden encontrarse en la Biblia, claramente se ve que el Espíritu Santo no es una persona en una supuesta Trinidad. Lamentablemente, la doctrina no bíblica de la Trinidad ofusca la enseñanza bíblica de que Dios es una familia, una familia que, como veremos, ¡es nuestro destino final!