Los elementos fundamentales del pacto del Sinaí

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Los elementos fundamentales del pacto del Sinaí

La totalidad de la ley comprendida en el pacto del Sinaí, los cinco libros escritos por Moisés, tenía como propósito abarcar, en principio, cada aspecto fundamental de la vida nacional en la antigua Israel.

Especificaba las penas por los actos criminales, cómo debían decidir los jueces en los casos criminales, principios para evitar la pobreza, la conducta de los sacerdotes, el diseño y la estructura física de los elementos del tabernáculo, la limpieza ceremonial, el control de los animales, instrucciones acerca de la moral, el diezmo, los festivales sagrados, la agricultura, principios de la salud y muchos otros aspectos de la vida.

La amplitud de su perspectiva y los minuciosos detalles de sus requisitos eran un reflejo de su orientación. Definía un sistema de gobierno para una nación cuyos ciudadanos, con excepción de unos cuantos dirigentes seleccionados, no tenía el Espíritu de Dios.

Había sido formulado pensando en personas cuyos corazones estaban endurecidos espiritualmente, cuyas mentes no percibían totalmente la intención espiritual de las enseñanzas de Dios (Matthew 13:15 Matthew 13:15For this people’s heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
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; Acts 28:27 Acts 28:27For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
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, citando Isaiah 6:9-10 Isaiah 6:9-10 [9] And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear you indeed, but understand not; and see you indeed, but perceive not. [10] Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.
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). Aunque instruía a las personas para que se acercaran a Dios y le sirvieran fielmente, hacía responsables a los dirigentes locales y nacionales de su obediencia. Por el bien de todos, también establecía castigos para aquellos que se negaran a obedecer.

El tabernáculo de Israel, y más tarde su templo, era el centro de la adoración nacional a Dios. Éxodo 25 al 31 describe con gran detalle cómo era el diseño del tabernáculo y cómo debía ser consagrado. También hay meticulosidad al describir las vestiduras y las responsabilidades de Aarón y los demás sacerdotes. Además tiene instrucciones detalladas en cuanto a la artesanía del tabernáculo, los utensilios sagrados y las ofrendas (Exodus 35:4 Exodus 35:4And Moses spoke to all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying, This is the thing which the LORD commanded, saying,
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to 36:1). Se explica cuidadosamente cómo debía construirse el tabernáculo (Exodus 36:2 Exodus 36:2And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, and every wise hearted man, in whose heart the LORD had put wisdom, even every one whose heart stirred him up to come to the work to do it:
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to 40:38).

El libro de Levítico resalta una gran variedad de aspectos ceremoniales del pacto del Sinaí. Son especialmente detalladas las instrucciones concernientes a las labores de los sacerdotes, los sacrificios diarios de animales y los sacrificios que se hacían los sábados y los días de fiesta anuales. Ese pacto tenía muchos ritos y ceremonias propios de la relación temporal y preponderantemente física entre la antigua Israel y Dios (ver Hebrews 8:1-5 Hebrews 8:1-5 [1] Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; [2] A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. [3] For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: why it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer. [4] For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: [5] Who serve to the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, said he, that you make all things according to the pattern showed to you in the mount.
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).

Sin embargo, esos ritos también simbolizaban la relación espiritual enormemente superior que el Mesías iba a establecer con todos los israelitas en el futuro. Esa mejor relación no será tan sólo con los judíos, sino también con todos los descendientes de las otras tribus de Israel, quienes en el futuro, según la profecía, volverán a su tierra natal (Jeremiah 23:5-8 Jeremiah 23:5-8 [5] Behold, the days come, said the LORD, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. [6] In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. [7] Therefore, behold, the days come, said the LORD, that they shall no more say, The LORD lives, which brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; [8] But, The LORD lives, which brought up and which led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries where I had driven them; and they shall dwell in their own land.
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). Será también con todas las demás naciones y todos los que se quieran someter a Dios y aprender sus caminos (Micah 4:1-4 Micah 4:1-4 [1] But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall flow to it. [2] And many nations shall come, and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for the law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. [3] And he shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations afar off; and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more. [4] But they shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig tree; and none shall make them afraid: for the mouth of the LORD of hosts has spoken it.
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).